final exam asks you to prepare three (3) separate essays answering three of the

final exam asks you to prepare
three (3)
separate essays answering three of the seven questions. Your essay will
need to cover the period 1450 to 1789 using primary sources, visual evidence,
our textbook, and other materials on the course site, just as you have done all
semester. Please do not use any other outside sources.
Compare and contrast the ways in which Europeans viewed the world in the 14th-15th century with later viewpoints in the 18th century. Account for both the major differences and continuities you discern.
Most of early modern Europe was ruled by kings and queens between 1450 and 1789. Analyze the ways in which the ideals, practices, and criticisms of monarchical rule evolved over this period. Account for both the major differences and continuities you discern.
Did Europe become a more secular society during the period 1450-1789? Consider as you make your case the evolving place of religion in the public realm and people’s lives during this period. Even if Europe did become more secular, did it necessarily become less religious?
Analyze how notions of individual identity, family, and gender relations evolved over the period 1450-1789. Be attentive to social class and geographical place as you make your assessment.
Some historians argue that “public opinion” emerged as a potent force in Europe during the period 1450-1789. With this in mind, analyze the ways in which new modes of communication and new forms of information affected European culture from the Renaissance through the Enlightenment.
While much of the world become subject to European influence in the period 1450-1789, so European society and culture became globalized in a variety of ways. Analyze this process of mutual change between Europe and the Americas, Africa, and Asia over this period.
In 1450, avarice was usually characterized as one of the seven deadly sins, while in 1750 the pursuit of wealth was seen as a virtue. What had changed in the interim to account for this revolution in attitudes?

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