Directions for the students: There are 4 essay questions. Please be sure to complete all of them with thorough substantive responses. Citations are required for all responses. There is no time limit.
- Construct a paragraph describing the interrelationship among the microbial pathogen, the affected host, and potential antimicrobial drugs in the development of an appropriate chemotherapeutic treatment.
- A critically ill patient enters your emergency room, exhibiting signs and symptoms of severe septic shock. In this case, should you immediately begin treatment with a broad-spectrum drug or a narrow-spectrum drug? Explain your answer and discuss any possible consequences of using either drug in the patient.
- Amphotericin B is often referred to as “Amphi-Terrible” in medical settings due to its effects in treated patients. Describe when this drug should be prescribed, and provide a biological reason for its damaging activity on host cells. HAART, or highly active antiretroviral therapy, is currently recommended for the treatment of HIV and involves the administration of three or more medicines at one time. Explain why this combined therapy approach is more effective than single drug treatment in the management of HIV infection, providing current evidence to support your answer.
- Antibiotic-resistance genes, as well as other virulence factor genes, are easily passed between bacterial cells through horizontal gene transfer. Conduct additional research on New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 strains of bacteria, and explain why medical tourism poses a serious threat to the spread of this organism. Provide evidence to support your explanation.