A student post this as a discussion post, please reply with 1 up to date reference. The practice of advanced practice registered nursing means the performance of an expanded scope of nursing in at least one of the recognized advanced practice roles and for at least one population focus. An individual licensed as an APRN by the board of nursing and certified by a national nurse certification organization acceptable to the board to practice as a Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), Certified Nurse Practitioner (CNP), Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM), or Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) (CITE). APRNs are accountable to patients for the quality of APRN care rendered, recognizing the limits of knowledge and experience, planning for the management for situations beyond the APRNs expertise. APRNs accept referrals, consult with, supervise, and interpret diagnostic studies, excluding interpreting computed tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging scans, positron emission tomography scans, nuclear scans, and mammography (Scruth, 2016). CNM and CRNA are not required to have a collaborative management agreement nor a written prescribing agreement. CNPs and CNSs beginning practice after July 1, 2014, must practice for at least 2,080 hours within the context of a collaborative management setting in a hospital or integrated clinical setting where APRNs and physicians work together. A written prescribing agreement is not required (Campos, 2019). Because Minnesota is a “full practice state”, this means that state laws permit all NPs to evaluate patients; diagnose, order and interpret diagnostic tests; and initiate and manage treatments, including prescribing medications and controlled substances, under the exclusive licensure authority of the state board of nursing. This is the model recommended by the National Academy of Medicine, formerly called the Institute of Medicine, and the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (Campos, 2019).